Earthquake Glossary - surface faulting
Surface faulting is displacement that reaches the earth's surface during slip along a fault. Commonly occurs with shallow earthquakes, those with an epicenter less than 20 km. Surface faulting also may accompany aseismic creep or natural or man-induced subsidence.
Hector Mine surface rupture after 1999 earthquake in southern California. (Photo by Katherine Kendrick, U.S. Geological Survey)